The Dividend Investing Resource Center

Letting Dividends Do Their Work

Dividend investing is a means of building wealth over a long period of time with reduced risk. Many brokers offer fee-free purchases and reinvestments and the ability to reinvest fractional shares. Dividend investing is for the long term buy-and-hold type investor who wants to sleep at night while their investments steadily build.

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Articles from The Prudent Investor

4 ETFs for Dividend Growth Investors

by George L Smyth

There are ETFs that cover pretty much any groupings one can think of and that includes issues of interest to long term investors. I look at four ETFs that are geared toward the prudent dividend growth investor.


To understand exchange traded funds (ETFs) one needs to go back to 31 December 1975.  On that date John Bogle opened the First Index Investment Trust, a mutual fund that tracked the S&P 500.  Started with just $11 million in assets the fund was called "un-American" and referred to as "Bogle's folly" by his competitors.  Later renamed the Vanguard 500 Index Fund, it crossed the $100 billion milestone by the end of 1999.  Today Vanguard is the largest provider of mutual funds with assets over $5 trillion.

With the success of what Fidelity Investments Chairman Edward Johnson once referred to as “just average returns,” companies realized that there was money to be made bypassing mutual funds, which can be complicated for the investor and require minimum amounts to participate.  To make things easier for the investor to participate, after some fits and starts, the first ETF to be available in the United States was Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipts, or SPDR, which tracks the S&P 500.

With about 5,000 ETFs globally (1,750 in the U.S.), these instruments offer convenience and affordable exposure to a wide range of investments.  According to there are over 230 dividend ETFs currently being traded in the U.S., so that is a rather large bucket from which to choose.  That said, the prudent dividend investor generally looks for companies with strong dividend growth over a long period of time, so that narrows things down a bit.

What I will do is to look at four ETFs that track companies focusing on dividend growth.  After all, we have found that Dividend Champions, Aristocrats, and Kings have done quite well when compared to the S&P 500 Index, so if one is seeking to go the ETF route then it might make sense to find one that tracks one of those lists.

Alas, there are no ETFs that track Dividend Champions or Kings.  Why this is not the case it a mystery to me.  Dividend Champions and Dividend Aristocrats are pretty much the same with the exception that Aristocrats must be listed in the S&P 500 while the Champions do not have that restriction.  We will examine an ETF that follows the former.

As Dividend Kings need to have offered at least 50 consecutive years of dividend growth there are only 28 companies in the list.  While it seems to me that this could be an extremely low expense ratio ETF, one could make their own ETF by buying all of the companies themselves.

As this blog and website are geared to the small investor one might wonder how I can make such a suggestion.  After all, we do not have access to the resources for doing this.  One idea might be to copy the companies in the list  and paste them into InvestMete (AWR DOV NWN EMR GPC PG PH MMM CINF JNJ KO LANC LOW FMCB CL NDSN HRL TR ABM CWT FRT SCL SJW SWK TGT CBSH MO SYY), enter any number for the Amount, and click the Determine InvestMete button.

It will take a little while to process all of them, but when the numbers are displayed sort by InvestMete and buy what you can of those with the highest InvestMete amounts.  My guess is that by purchasing additional shares this way on a regular basis, over the years this dollar cost averaging strategy would eventually include a great many of these companies.  But this is an article about 4 ETFs.

ProShares S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF

NOBL is the best known ETF amongst those who look for dividend growth.  It is the only one to track the S&P 500® Dividend Aristocrats® Index, which consists of companies that have increased their dividend every year for the past 25 years, are members of the S&P 500, and meet certain liquidity requirements (actually, all of the S&P 500 meets these liquidity requirements).  The stocks within this ETF are equally weighted and are rebalanced four times a year.

Yield 5 Year Return 10 Year Return Expense Ratio
1.94% 10.86% N/A 0.35%

SPDR® S&P® Dividend ETF

SDY tracks the S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats (^SPHYDA), which are companies that have increased their dividend for at least 20 consecutive years.  Stocks are weighted within the index by indicated yield and adjusted every quarter.  The dividend growth streak gives the roughly 60 holdings the characteristic of being some of the safest companies and tend toward stable industries.

Yield 5 Year Return 10 Year Return Expense Ratio
2.52% 10.53% 13.02% 0.35%

Vanguard Dividend Appreciation ETF

VIG tracks the NASDAQ US Dividend Achievers Select Index, which contains companies that have increased their dividend over at least the past ten years.  (Disclosure – I recently started a small stake in this ETF.)  REITs are not included in this ETF because they do not receive favorable tax rates from qualified dividends.  About 180 companies comprise the ETF with exposure primarily in the consumer staples, health care, and industrials sectors.

Yield 5 Year Return 10 Year Return Expense Ratio
1.63% 12.13% 12.96% 0.06%

Schwab U.S. Dividend Equity ETF

SCHD, like VIG, contains companies that have increased their dividend for at least the past ten years.  It tracks the Dow Jones U.S. Dividend 100® Index, excluding REITs, master limited partnerships, preferred stocks and convertibles.  The index is modified market capitalization weighted.  The mix of dividend growth and yield in the roughly 100 companies allow for a greater payout than the above ETFs.

Yield 5 Year Return 10 Year Return Expense Ratio
3.03% 11.32% N/A 0.06%

Of Note

SDY and VIG have been around since 2006, so they have 10 years of history to report.  Since these ETFs have fairly strict consecutive streak requirements and are passively managed this is really of no advantage over others with less history.

Of definite advantage, however, is the fact that both VIG and SCHD have very low expense ratios.  Expenses can savagely cut into one’s holdings, so having a low expense ratio is an important part of maintaining one’s portfolio.  If a higher expense ratio is to be paid then there should be a strong reason for seeing more money taken out of one’s pocket.

Other Growth Dividend ETFs

Indeed there are other ETFs that base their selection on dividend growth and this was certainly not intended to be a complete list.  However, they do start to become redundant.  For instance, Invesco Dividend Achievers ETF (PFM), which was mentioned in Dividend Champions, Achievers, Kings and Aristocrats – A Comparison against the Indexes, is nearly the same as the Vanguard Dividend Appreciation ETF (VIG) with the exception that the former allows REITs and the latter does not.  However, with an expense ratio of 0.54% it does not compare well against VIG.

There are others, like iShares Core Dividend Growth ETF (DGRO), that are based on dividend growth but only require a consecutive string of five years, similar to Dividend Challengers.  It does offer an attractive expense ratio of 0.08%, but in my mind such a short streak, while certainly better over the long haul than companies not offering a dividend, is less of a growth streak we would normally seek.

Finishing Up

With research one should be able to find other ETFs that better fit their specific requirements.  If one is looking for ETFs that concentrate on dividend growth over a long period of time, any of the above can work well as the cornerstone in one’s portfolio.

Other Articles of Interest


Dividend Champions, Achievers, Kings and Aristocrats – A Comparison against the Indexes

Understanding Dividend Yield


Mutual Funds and Dividend Investing

by George L Smyth

Dividend investing is not just for those who wish to actively research and select companies. Some mutual funds are focused on dividend companies and offer diversification to the investor’s portfolio.

I have been a fan of mutual funds since I began investing.  Funds with bundles of companies can offer diversification to one’s portfolio, helping to smooth some of the swings that individual companies offer.  This diversification reduces risk and gives the investor a better chance to sleep well at night.

The problem with some mutual funds is that they are accompanied by rather high expense ratios.  These are costs imposed by the fund manager to pay for the actions taken to maintain the fund.  Each tenth of a percent fee is one-tenth of a percent taken from one’s portfolio.  I will examine low expense ratio index funds in a moment but for now, will address actively managed funds.

Actively Managed Funds

We tend to think of those who study stocks and select them for a living as having a special ability beyond our grasp.  Certainly, some are in that category (Warren Buffett, Peter Lynch, etc.), but for the most part, this is not the case, and demonstrably so.  Fund managers are as vulnerable to human frailties as everyone else, and the additional pressure of quarterly reports to fund owners can lead to miscalculations.

I decided to look for an example of a successful fund manager by Googling “2018 mutual fund manager best".  I intended to see who had been highly regarded a couple of years ago and follow the results of the decisions they had made over that time.

One of the first offerings was 4 Mutual Fund Managers Who Can Help You Beat the Market, an article by James Glassman, a contributing columnist for Kiplinger Personal Finance.  Mr. Glassman listed seven actively managed funds he considered his personal favorites that had mostly beaten the S&P 500 over the previous ten years.

Seven Funds to Beat the Index
Fund Symbol Expense Ratio
Dodge & Cox Stock DODGX 0.52%
Fidelity Contrafund FCNTX 0.68%
Mairs & Power Growth MPGFX 0.66%
Nicholas Fund NICSX 0.72%
Oakmark Fund OAKMX 0.89%
Parnassus Fund PARNX 0.86%
Parnassus Endeavor PARWX 0.95%

It is one thing to cherry-pick funds that have beaten the index over the past ten years, which can be helpful when making a selection.  It is another thing to see how those selections panned out over subsequent years.

Stock Rover allowed me a simple means of charting the performance of these funds over the past two years, and to no surprise, the results were less than overwhelming.

Two year comparison
Graph courtesy Stock Rover

The chart shows that more than half of Mr. Glassman’s 2018 favorite funds compared negatively to the market (VTSAX, Vanguard’s Total Stock Market Index Fund is used here as a proxy) in the two years following the article.  Two of his picks lost over 15% as of this writing.  Owning all seven of these funds would have seen the investor down 4.1% when compared to the market proxy.

Pushing this group back five years from today shows an even more dramatic loss to the index.

Five year comparison
Graph courtesy Stock Rover

A five-year timeframe gives us offers an opportunity to view performance over both bull and bear markets.  Some funds will outperform in one or the other situation, but the long term dividend investor will probably encounter both during the time of their investment.

In this case, the Fidelity Contrafund did exceptionally well when compared to the market but the other six lagged, a couple by more than 20%.  Fidelity Contrafund has done very well because Amazon and Facebook are its largest holdings and both companies have soared over the past several years.

Bad news sometimes comes in pairs and in this situation, the other bad news is that these funds have expense ratios higher than index funds.  An expense ratio is the percentage of assets that are charged by the company that administers the fund to cover expenses, including the salary of the person managing the fund. 

The expense ratio for each fund is listed in the table above, with an average of 0.75%.  This means that one is paying a fund manager to make bad decisions on their behalf.  And the even worse news is that the expense ratios in the table were drawn from the original article and may not be what the company is charging today.  For instance, over the past two years, the Fidelity Contrafund expense ratio has increased from 0.68% to 0.85%.

Index Funds

Index funds have considerably lower expense ratios.  This is because the stock selections are not made by a fund manager, but are the result of a company's inclusion within a specific grouping.  There is no decision to be made, a company is either in the index or it is not.  If a company is in the S&P 500 then it is in the S&P 500 index fund – if it is not, then it is not.  The only decision the fund manager needs to make is how to most efficiently convert incoming and outgoing cash to and from the fund to adjust the fund with the correct weighting of stocks.

Vanguard invented the index fund.  The creation of their first index fund in 1976 brought the ire of the industry upon them as somehow being “un-American”. Vanguard now manages $5.1 trillion in assets, so apparently, it was a successful idea.

The first company I worked for that offered a 401(k) used Vanguard, so I have invested in their index funds over many years.  Today just about every company that manages funds has index funds that compare favorably to Vanguard – Fidelity even offers no-minimum, no expense ratio index funds, which sounds very enticing.

But as this is a website with an interest in dividends, I wondered how index funds that base their stock selections on dividend-paying companies compare with the market.  Vanguard has three dividend funds that deal with U.S. companies and they are listed below.

Vanguard U.S. Dividend Index Funds
Fund Symbol Expense Ratio
Dividend Appreciation Index Fund Admiral Shares VDADX 0.08%
High Dividend Yield Index Fund Admiral Shares VHYAX 0.08%
Dividend Growth Fund VDIGX 0.22%

I have owned the VDADX fund for quite some time (expense ratio of 0.08%) and consider it to be one of my most important retirement investments.  VDIGX is not an index fund (note the higher expense ratio) but I to included it because it concentrates on dividend growth.

Dividend index fund comparison
Graph courtesy Stock Rover

The most obvious element in this graph is the pink line moving down to show a loss of more than 10%.  This represents the movement of the Vanguard High Dividend Yield Index Fund.

There are numerous articles critical of dividend investing due to concerns of dividend cuts.  These concerns are legitimate.  After all, without these concerns, it would make sense to simply select the highest dividend companies and cash in when their dividends are distributed.

However, high dividend stocks tend to teeter on the edge of sustainability and when expected dividends do not come to pass the company is severely punished.  The fund has only been active a little over one year so perhaps over time the high-risk aspect of the fund will prove more worthy of consideration.

On the other hand, VDADX and VDIGX have performed quite well when compared to the market.  The presence of dividends with their quarterly returns to investors assists with the company’s price.  Not attempting to play on high dividends and focusing on safe dividend investing helps to smooth the path during difficult times.

Finishing Up

Many companies offer low expense ratio dividend index funds that may be helpful to the investor who wishes to be involved in dividend investing but does not want to make individual stock selections.  Combined with total market or S&P 500 index funds, these conservative index funds can offer the basis of a strong portfolio.

For those who wish to select individual stocks, these funds are an excellent means of adding a degree of diversity and risk management to their portfolio.  I have always relied primarily on index funds for the majority of my portfolio, which has given me the diversity I need.  This allows me to select individual stocks irrespective of sector or market capitalization because my diversification is already intact.

Dividend index funds can be an important foundation adding diversity and value to any portfolio.

Other Articles of Interest

The Dividend Yield and Stock Price Connection

Safe Stocks for Dividend Investors

Ensuring Dividend Survivability


This website is maintained by George L Smyth